«a arte pública»

The art of calsada

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The origin and history

Calsada as coating surfaces already existed in ancient among tribal peoples, as a place to perform religious rites and rituals of power.

From the ancient cover of Calsada, the most famous are calsadas the Roman Empire, mades by slaves.

Perhaps calceteiro is one of the oldest professions.

Because of the practice of reusing stone for coatings, 
almost there is not ancient calsada, preserved in good condition.
"Life of calceteiro is aflicted thing,
Joy and sadness -is between the stones "- the origin of the phrase goes deep into the times.

Specifications calsada as cover.

1 The main feature and advantage of calsada compared to other coatings is the ability to restore a damaged or destroyed cover those same natural material - stone limestone or granite rarer.

2.Calçada as coverage of natural stone (granite and limestone) has much greater strength compared with artificial materials (asphalt, materials based on cement, tiles).
3. Calçada partially absorbs rain or melt-water.

4.Any calçada surface is the sole or unique surface , because the style of presentation of stones depends of the Masters (one or group), and made of stone manually of "stone hewer"(one or group), and the quality of the reservoir rock (also only on geological nature).
Therefore calsada considered the art or folk crafts, and to this day, has not been established as a definite profession in Legislation in Portugal.


"Meia - esquadria" - aplicação da pedra antiga


Applied technology - key "grid" (drawings) of calsada.

There is a variety of "safety net" - ways of laying stone. The most well-known and used:
1."Half-Rectangle" more or less rectangular stone fit diagonally in two directions.This is usual mesh of calcada.
2."Direct laying" Stone is parallel of  edge cover, such large hewn stone of pavement, in which case is not necessary triangular stones on the edge calsada. Such a way to cover more common in the north of Portugal, or in the mining areas of granite. It is also used to designate pedestrian crossings.
3."Fan": drawings has form as fans. More often occurs in northern Europe.
4.“Hexagonal" drawings. Hexangular is in the form of stone and fit in hundred. Often occurs in the more ancient works.
5."Laying in niche slots" or "the Portuguese calsada" rock is not a regular shape, put, "indiscriminately" to the greatest contact stones and the lack of grooves.

     Note: There are different understandings of the term "Portuguese calsada":

1. Interpretation of foreigners - any calsada of natural stone (usually limestone) in Portugal.
2. Akademic interpretation in dictionaries: "calsada a symmetrical pattern, with the influence of Arab motives figure"
3.Professionalnoe, technical meaning: the type of nets used bearings - "laying in niche slots" or "the Portuguese calsada"

Wikipédia: Mosaico português




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